Inside the last of Germany’s disappearing nuclear plants

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Written by Oscar Holland, CNN
After an earthquake and tsunami triggered multiple meltdowns at Japan’s Fukushima Daiichi power plant in 2011, the shockwaves were felt across the world’s nuclear industry. Over 5,000 miles away in Germany, where the use of atomic energy had long been a matter of contention, the incident sounded a death knell.
Chancellor Angela Merkel immediately announced that she was taking the country’s seven oldest nuclear power plants off the grid. Soon after, she pledged that the rest would be permanently shuttered by 2022, with the state’s focus shifting towards renewable alternatives.
So when photographer Bernhard Ludewig visited a nuclear plant for the first time in 2012, a year after Fukushima, he wasn’t simply glimpsing into an inaccessible world — he was documenting a closing chapter in German history.

Control rods pictured inside an open reactor at Emsland Nuclear Power Plant in northwestern Germany.

Control rods pictured inside an open reactor at Emsland Nuclear Power Plant in northwestern Germany. Credit: Bernhard Ludewig
“We picked a time when they were changing the fuel rods,” he recalled of this first encounter during a phone interview. “We spoke to the guy operating the loading machine and we were able to ride it right over the reactor, and I got my first picture. I’d seen some press photos, but it’s a different thing when you’re there. This was the start of the project.”
Ludewig went on to visit dozens of other sites in the following years. Through a combination of paperwork, persuasion and trust-building, he gained rare access to some of the country’s last remaining nuclear facilities, as well as capturing demolition already underway.
Inspired by Edward Burtynsky (the Canadian photographer known for his depictions of mines, oil refineries and other human interventions on natural landscapes), he decided to record a complete picture of the country’s atomic sector — not just power plants, but also research centers, training facilities and repositories for radioactive waste.

Inside the aluminum-paneled control room of the disused FR2 research reactor Karlsruhe.

Inside the aluminum-paneled control room of the disused FR2 research reactor Karlsruhe. Credit: Bernhard Ludewig
The resulting photos are, at times, mesmerizing. Ludewig’s focus on patterns and symmetry reveal the beauty hidden in complex centrifuges, retro-styled control rooms and soaring cooling towers that he described as possessing a religious, cathedral-like quality.
“Sometimes machinery or objects are like a person — I try to take portraits of them,” he said. “You take pictures and don’t think so much about what it is. You’ve got a feeling, and you follow it. And it gets more refined every time.”

Remaining neutral

Ludewig has now compiled around 300 of the photos into a new book, “The Nuclear Dream.” Set across more than 400 pages, it is an exhaustive survey of nuclear power, complete with diagrams, illustrations and contributor essays on physics and architecture.
The photographer also explored what he called “atomic age aesthetics” through vintage posters and paraphernalia purporting the benefits of the then-new technology. This early utopian imagery, inspired by movements like modernism and the Bauhaus school, offers a stark juxtaposition with images of today’s often faded facilities.

Inside an exploratory mine drilled beneath the town of Gorleben, where radioactive waste may be permanently stored.

Inside an exploratory mine drilled beneath the town of Gorleben, where radioactive waste may be permanently stored. Credit: Bernhard Ludewig
Yet Ludewig maintains that he is neither for nor against nuclear power, but rather a “neutral” intrigued by technology that once carried promises of the future. His aim, he said, was to capture this disappearing world for posterity’s sake, rather than to promote or critique the country’s energy policy.
“It was truly documenting,” added Ludewig, who said disagreements over nuclear power are like a “civil war” in Germany. “You have two camps. It’s like Trump’s America, you’re either a Republican or a left-wing liberal and they don’t talk to each other. Anybody who says anything is regarded as being for us or against us.”
While Fukushima served as a catalyst for widespread public opposition in Germany, the country’s commitment to phasing out nuclear plants dates back 20 years. Debates over the perceived dangers and deficiencies of atomic energy are older still.
During the 1970s, left-wing protests outside nuclear facilities in former West Germany were common, and often resulted in violent clashes with police. Proposals to dispose of radioactive waste in salt mines in Gorleben have made the small town a flashpoint for demonstrations ever since. (Ludewig’s book include photos of an exploratory mine drilled beneath Gorleben as part of Germany’s ongoing search for a permanent answer to its nuclear waste problem).

Ludewig's project also took him to the abandoned Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant in present-day Ukraine.

Ludewig’s project also took him to the abandoned Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant in present-day Ukraine. Credit: Bernhard Ludewig
For Ludewig, however, the real “turning point” was Chernobyl. The 1986 disaster — which sent radioactive fallout across Europe, caused a spike in cancer rates and left a 1,000-square-mile area of present-day Ukraine largely uninhabitable — fundamentally changed the debate in Germany. Soviet-designed facilities in the country’s east, such as the Greifswald Nuclear Power Plant, were decommissioned after the country’s reunification. And no new nuclear power facilities were built in Germany from the 1990s onwards.
So as well as visiting sites in Finland and Brazil, Ludewig also made a pilgrimage to the Chernobyl Exclusion Zone in order to paint a more complete picture of the industry. The photos he returned with, including eerie images of the doomed plant’s long-abandoned control room, help provide objectivity and balance to the project, he said.
“If you publish hundreds of pictures about nuclear power that show its hidden beauty, and you don’t show the catastrophe, then it wouldn’t be honest.”
taken from here

How will we party post-pandemic?

In nightclubs around the world, once-crowded dance floors have remained empty for months. If you need reminding, clubbing is close contact activity: People share drinks, hug, kiss and generally invade each others personal space until the early hours of the morning.
And while such escapism and a chance to blow off some steam might be welcome after extended worldwide lockdowns due to the coronavirus pandemic, the current situation spells trouble for nightlife. How can people safely hit the dance floor while respecting new social distancing measures?
Some early attempts to reopen clubs and live music venues have provided clues to what the future of nightlife might hold. In China, where nightclubs have reopened, attendees undergo temperature checks before entering and register their personal information to make contact tracing easier. Venues are offering extra precautions such as disposable cups and hourly bathroom disinfecting.

In Shanghai, nightlife staff wear masks and keep bars and clubs disinfected for patrons.

In Shanghai, nightlife staff wear masks and keep bars and clubs disinfected for patrons. Credit: Hector Retamal/AFP/Getty Images
“The fear is the challenge,” said Shane Davis, co-founder and creative director of Brooklyn venue Public Records, over video chat. “It’s the fear of the unknown, the fear of being among people that you don’t necessarily trust.”
In South Korea, a cluster of new cases linked to nightclubs forced all of the Seoul’s bars and clubs to temporarily close just weeks after strict social distancing measures were eased. Just last weekend, people gathered to dance at an open-air venue in Münster, Germany — possibly the first sanctioned electronic party in Europe since the wave of infections forced venues to shutter.

Resident Advisor



In what might be the first dance party in Europe in months, Gerd Janson played to a small, socially-distanced crowd in Münster last night. We’re speaking with the promoters on how they pulled this one off. More details forthcoming

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For decades, nightclubs and raves have provided a sense of community in times of social or political upheaval, one that has often thrived under limitations and restraints.
In the 1970s, New York City discos offered a safe haven for LGBTQ visibility; in 1988, rebellious and hedonistic acid house parties swept the UK and birthed an entirely new music movement; in the 1990s, German techno thrived after the fall of the Berlin Wall, unifying the country’s once-separated youth.
While many venues will struggle to stay afloat without filling to capacity each weekend, it looks as though design, technology and some creative ingenuity can help reshape how people return to nightclubs, even if no touching is allowed. Here are some ways the party might go on in 2020 and beyond.

A new wave of subculture style

One LA-based studio has imagined protective gear that looks like it’s straight out of “Tron.” The Micrashell concept is an upper-body suit and helmet with N95 particle filtration that can be worn over one’s clothes. To keep the design airtight and — in theory — virus-free, wearers drink from alcohol canisters built into the suit and communicate through built-in speakers. Production Club, which also designs world tours for DJs and electronic artists, is currently prototyping the concept and seeking funding, hoping to offer them in bulk to venues that can only operate at limited capacity.

“What we designed was not going to be a piece of medical equipment,” creative director Miguel Risueño said. “Because then it’s a downer rather than something that makes you happy.” Credit: Production Club, Inc.
“We decided we needed to find a solution to bring events back — not in one year but tomorrow,” said creative director Miguel Risueño. “We came up with this idea of creating a suit that allows you to socialize.” Recognizing the history of club culture and costume, Risueño and his team opted for a neon-enhanced futuristic design.
“What we designed was not going to be a piece of medical equipment,” he said. “Because then it’s a downer rather than something that makes you happy.”
Personal protective equipment (PPE) may begin as a necessity — newly opened clubs are requiring or strongly encouraging masks — but plain surgical masks and disposable gloves are unlikely to stay the norm for very long. Club fashion has often embraced style trends that serve a purpose, from hand fans to keep you cool while dancing, to handkerchiefs offering a coded system for sexual identity and liaisons.

Production Club hopes to throw their first party with the Micrashell by the end of the year.

Production Club hopes to throw their first party with the Micrashell by the end of the year. Credit: Production Club, Inc.
Masks, in particular, already have a history in the club scene and particular subcultures within it — cyber goths tap into sci-fi themes with PVC or gas masks, and kandi ravers string together colorful beaded masks. At festivals, attendees often wear bandanas to shield themselves from the elements. Clothing can provide other precautionary barriers, too. Larger-than-life avant-garde silhouettes featured prominently among New York club kids in the ’90s, and could be playfully revisited to keep others at a distance.
Even if full rave suits don’t catch on, wearable tech may rise to the challenge. Already, Brooklyn-based tech company StrongArm Tech has created a mobile-phone sized device that can warn someone if another person is closer than six feet away, and capture information required for contact tracing. Though it has been touted as a way for people to return to work safely, similar devices could be used in bars and clubs.

Dancing in the open air

Open-air venues are more likely to thrive after the pandemic wanes. At the recent event in Münster, event staff at Coconut Beach added another layer of social distancing through circles on the floor spread six feet apart. That tactic was seen again in a recent TikTok video from Slovakia, where party-goers gathered beneath an underpass to dance in cordoned-off squares.
As Spain eases its lockdown, the country will allow indoor venues to operate with a maximum of only 80 people — an unsustainable capacity for spaces that often fit hundreds or thousands of patrons — while up to 800 people will be allowed at outdoor venues. Ticket prices could increase as a result. In the case of the Coconut Beach party, which only offered entry to 100 people, tickets cost at 70 euros ($77 USD) each.
Limited entry could push more dance events into the underground, which carries greater risks. Unsanctioned raves in the woods or open fields, of the type that swept the UK in the 1980s and 1990s, and still crop up today, could see a resurgence as a response to new restrictions or shuttered clubs. In Leeds, UK, three people were arrested this week for attending a 200-person party on a protected nature reserve.

Drive-in events have expanded beyond movies to live music and theater. Here, 200 cars line up to see German DJ Alle Farben perform in Bonn, Germany.

Drive-in events have expanded beyond movies to live music and theater. Here, 200 cars line up to see German DJ Alle Farben perform in Bonn, Germany. Credit: Andreas Rentz/Getty Images
Meanwhile, in Schüttorf, Germany, promoters looked to cinema for a new — and safer — type of dance party, throwing a drive-in rave that kept everyone isolated in their cars.
Motorists also pulled into a field in Bonn where DJ Frans Zimmer, aka Alle Farben, performed at “BonnLive Autokonzerte,” a series of car concerts inspired by the need for social distancing.

Virtual streams and listening rooms

Worldwide, clubs have kept people dancing in the privacy of one’s home, by taking their programming virtual. In New York, with over 25,000 restaurants and nightlife venues disrupted by the virus, Brooklyn clubs have hosted dance parties over Zoom or built their own websites for live streams. They include Public Records’ online endeavor, Public Access, which Davis calls a “24-hour music television channel,” that has featured an eclectic mix of audio and visuals.
Until people can freely return to dancing indoors, clubs will need to figure out how to adjust to social distancing measures. “The dance floor will adapt,” Davis said. “It might not be the same dance floor with people (wearing) masks, but maybe a different experience altogether.”
That could include more “listening experiences,” he said, instead of traditional dance parties — more akin to the sound cafes and smaller venues popular in Tokyo, which proliferated due to the country’s decades-long ban on dancing after midnight. In Berlin, nightlife is seeing drastic changes as venues attempt to safely welcome patrons — clubs that typically stay open for upwards of 60 hours at a time, such as the sprawling indoor-outdoor venue Sisyphos, are tenuously opening as beer gardens with live music, with dancing not yet allowed.

Berlin nightclub Kater Blau participates in

Berlin nightclub Kater Blau participates in “United We Stream,” an effort in March by the city’s musicians, promoters and clubs to keep live music going during lockdown. Credit: John MacDougall/AFP/Getty Images
New York City is still, at minimum, more than a month away from seeing the reopening of music venues, but will face the same challenges of other international venues trying to operate under new city laws. What Davis doesn’t want is to sacrifice the spirit of Public Records — which could be hampered by highly monitored, limited-capacity events.
“The beauty of nightlife…is that element of chance,” of being around others who “are unfamiliar and exciting,” Davis said. “If we’re not able to achieve that level of experience, then we’re just gonna do something completely different until we can again.”
source: here

Četvrta industrijska revolucija: Šta to znači i kako da se postavimo?

Stojimo na ivici tehnološke revolucije koja će u temelju izmeniti način na koji živimo, radimo i na koji smo povezani jedni sa drugima. Po svom nivou, obimu i složenosti, ova transformacija neće biti slična nijednoj promeni koju je ljudska rasa već iskusila.

Još uvek ne znamo kako će se odvijati, ali jedna stvar je jasna – odgovor na to mora biti integrisan i sveobuhvatan, uključujući sve aktere globalne vladavine, od javnih i privatnih sektora do akademskih i građanskih zajednica.

Industrijske revolucije kroz istoriju

Prva industrijska revolucija je koristila vodu i moć pare kako bi mehanizovala proizvodnju. Druga je koristila električnu moć kako bi kreirala masovnu proizvodnju. Treća je koristila elektroniku i informacionu tehnologiju kako bi automatizovala proizvodnju.

Danas je Četvrta industrijska revolucija izgrađena na Trećoj, digitalnoj revoluciji koja se pojavila od sredine prošlog veka. Karakteriše je spajanje tehnologija što dovodi do brisanja granica između fizičke, digitalne i biološke sfere.

Postoje tri razloga zašto današnje transformacije predstavljaju ne samo produženje Treće industrijske revolucije nego i dolazak Četvrte:

  1. brzina
  2. obim
  3. uticaj na sisteme

Brzina trenutnih prodora nema istorijski presedan. Kada se uporedi sa prethodnim industrijskim revolucijama, Četvrta se razvija eksponencijalnim, a ne linearnim tempom.


Kako prepoznajemo Četvrtu industrijsku revoluciju?

Četvrta industrijska revolucija remeti skoro svaku industriju u svakoj zemlji. Širina i dubina ovih promena su vesnici transformacije svih sistema proizvodnje, menadžmenta i vlada.

Više od milijarde ljudi su povezani mobilnim uređajima, jedinstvenom procesorskom snagom, kapacitetom skladišta i pristupom znanju, a njihove mogućnosti su neograničene.

Ove mogućnosti će biti umnožene tehnološkim inovacijama u nastajanju u oblastima kao što su:

  • veštačka inteligencija,
  • robotika,
  • autonomna vozila,
  • 3D štampanje,
  • nanotehnologija,
  • biotehnologija,
  • nauka o materijalima,
  • skladištenje energije,
  • kvantno računanje.

Već sada je veštačka inteligencija svuda oko nas, od samoupravljajućih automobila i bespilotnih letelica do virtuelnih asistenata i programa koji prevode ili investiraju.

Prethodnih godina u oblasti veštačke inteligencije je napravljen impresivan napredak, vođen eksponencijalnim rastom računarske snage i dostupnošću ogromne količine podataka, od programa korišćenih da otkriju nove lekove do algoritama koji se koriste da bi predvideli kulturne interese.

U međuvremenu, digitalne tehnologije u proizvodnji su svakodnevno u interakciji sa biološkim svetom. Inženjeri, dizajneri i arhitekte kombinuju kompjuterski dizajn, inženjering materijala i sintetičku biologiju koja razvija simbiozu između mikroorganizama, naših tela, proizvoda koji konzumiramo, pa čak i zgrada koje nastanjujemo.

displaj budućnosti

Lepe i ružne strane Četvrte industrijske revolucije

Kao i revolucije koje su joj prethodile, Četvrta industrijska revolucija ima potencijal da poveća globalni nivo prihoda i poboljša kvalitet života populaciji širom sveta.

Do sada, oni koji su najviše imali koristi od nje su potrošači koji su bili u mogućnosti da je sebi priušte i da pristupe digitalnom svetu. Tehnologije su omogućile novim proizvodima i uslugama da povećaju efikasnost i zadovoljstvo u našim životima.

Naručivanje taksija, zakazivanje leta, kupovina proizvoda, online plaćanje, slušanje muzike, gledanje filma ili igranje video igre – sve ovo sada može da se radi na daljinu.

U budućnosti, tehnološke inovacije će nam doneti dugoročne dobiti u efikasnosti i produktivnosti. Tako će se troškovi prevoza, komunikacije i razmene smanjiti,a  logistika i lanci globalnog snabdevanja će postati efektivniji. Sve to će otvoriti nova tržišta i dovesti do ekonomskog rasta.

Istovremeno bi nova revolucija mogla doneti veću nejednakost, naročito zbog njenog potencijala da remeti tržište rada.

S obzirom na to da automatizacija zamenjuje rad, deo radnika bi morao da se otpusti ili premesti, što bi moglo pogoršati raskorak između prinosa kapitala i prinosa od rada.

vreme je novac

U drugu ruku, moguće je da će zamena radnika tehnologijom zbirno rezultirati porastom sigurnih i korisnih poslova.

U ovom trenutku ne možemo predvideti koji scenario će se odigrati, ali istorija nam govori da će ishod verovatno biti neka kombinacija ova dva primera.

U budućnosti će talenat, više nego kapital, predstavljati kritični faktor proizvodnje. Zbog ovoga će se na tržištu zabeležiti podela na niže kvalifikovane radnike, koji će biti slabo plaćeni, i u visoko kvalifikovane radnike, koji će imati dobre plate. Sve ovo će voditi do porasta društvenih tenzija.

Pored toga što je ključno ekonomsko pitanje, nejednakost predstavlja najveći društveni problem koji je povezan sa Četvrtom industrijskom revolucijom.

Najveći korisnici inovacija imaju tendenciju da budu davaoci intelektualnog i fizičkog kapitala – inovatori, akcionari, investitori. Doći će do porasta bogatstva, dok će istovremeno porasti i siromaštvo.

Tehnologija je jedan od glavnih razloga zašto su prihodi stagnirali ili opali za veći deo populacije u zemljama sa visokim prihodima. Potražnja za radnicima sa višim obrazovanjem se povećala, dok je potražnja za radnicima sa nižom edukacijom i nižim kvalifikacijama opala.

Sve ovo nam objašnjava zašto su radnici razočarani i zašto se plaše će njihovi prihodi i prihodi njihove dece nastaviti da stagniraju. Ovo takođe objašnjava zašto srednja klasa širom sveta oseća nezadovoljstvo i nepravdu.

Ekonomija sa motoom pobednik uzima sve nudi samo ograničen pristup srednjoj klasi i predstavlja recept slabe demokratije.

Nezadovoljstvo takođe može biti uzorokovano ukorenjenošću digitalnih tehnologija i dinamikom razmene informacija koje je tipično za društvene medije.

Više od 30% globalne populacije sada koristi platforme društvenih mreža da bi se povezali, učili, delili informacije. U idealnom svetu, ove interakcije bi obezbedile priliku za međukulturološko razumevanje i koheziju.

Međutim, oni takođe mogu stvoriti i širiti nerealna očekivanja o tome šta predstavlja uspeh za pojedinca ili grupu, kao i da nude prilike za širenje ekstremnih ideja i ideologija.

Uticaj na posao

Ubrzanje inovacija i njihovih promena je teško shvatiti i predvideti. Nove tehnologije predstavljaju izvor stalnog iznenađenja, čak i za one dobro informisane.

Zaista, u svim industrijama postoji jasan dokaz da tehnologije koje podupiru Četvrtu industrijsku revoluciju imaju snažan uticaj na posao.

Mnoge industrije vide uvod u nove tehnologije kao stvaranje novih načina ispunjavanja postojećih potreba, što značajno remeti vrednost postojećih lanaca industrije.

Promene počinju od agilnih, inovativnih konkurenata koji zahvaljujući pristupima globalnim digitalnim platformama za istraživanje, razvoj, marketing, prodaju i distribuciju mogu svrgnuti dobro uspostavljene izvršioce brže nego ikada, poboljšavajući kvalitet, brzinu ili cenu po kojoj je vrednost isporučena.

Glavne promene na strani potražnje događaju se kao:

  • rastuća transparentnost,
  • angažovanje potrošača.
  • novi obrasci ponašanja potrošača (zbog pristupa mobilnim mrežama i podacima).

Sve ovo tera kompanije da se prilagode tome i da menjaju način na koji dizajniraju i isporučuju proizvode i usluge.

Ključni trend je razvoj platformi koje kombinuju ponudu i tražnju, koje se lako koriste na smartfonima i stvaraju potpuno nove načine konzumiranja dobara i usluga. One smanjuju barijere za kompanije i stvaraju im bogatstvo.

Ove nove platforme se konstantno transformišu u mnoge nove usluge, stvarajući nove biznise ili unapređujući postojeće.

Uopšteno gledajući, postoje četiri glavna efekta koje industrijska revolucija ima na poslovanje:

  1. očekivanja kupaca,
  2. unapređenje proizvoda,
  3. inovativna saradnja,
  4. organizacione forme.

Sada su potrošači u epicentru ekonomije i sve se vrti oko poboljšanja načina na koji će oni biti usluženi.

Više nego ikada, fizički proizvodi i usluge mogu biti poboljšani sa digitalnim mogućnostima koje povećavaju njihovu vrednost. Nove tehnologije čine sredstva trajnijim i otpornijim, a kompanije dobijaju povratne informacije putem analiza i podataka.

Svet potrošačkih iskustava, usluga baziranih na podacima i performansama sredstava zahteva nove forme saradnje, posebno imajući u vidu brzinu kojom inovacije uzimaju danak.

Pojava novih platformi i drugih novih poslovnih modela znači da nove forme moraju biti ponovo osmišljene.

Sve u svemu, neumoljive promene od jednostavnih organizacija (Treća industrijska revolucija) do inovacija baziranih na kombinacijama tehnologija (Četvrta industrijska revolucija) je prisiljavanje kompanija da preispitaju način na koji posluju.

Poslovni lideri i zaposleni bi trebalo da razumeju promenljivo okruženje, da budu u toku zajedno sa svojim operativnim timovima i da nemilosrdno i stalno prate inovacije.

Uticaj na vlade

Nove tehnologije i platforme će sve više omogućavati građanima da se angažuju u rad vlada, iznesu svoje mišljenje i, čak, nadmudre nadzor javnih vlasti.

Istovremeno, vlade će usvojiti moći novih tehnologija kako bi povećali kontrolu nad populacijom, bazirano na prožimajućim sistemima nadzora i mogućnostima da kontrolišu digitalnu infrastrukturu.

U celini, vlade će se sve više suočiti sa pritiskom da izmene trenutni pristup javnog angažovanja i kreiranja politike, baš kao što se njihova centralna uloga vođenja politike smanjuje zbog novih izvora konkurencije, preraspodele i decentralizacije moći koje nove tehnologije omogućavaju.


Na kraju, prilagodljivost vladajućih sistema i javnih vlasti će odrediti njihovo preživljavanje. Ukoliko dokažu da su sposobni da se suoče da svetom stalnih promena, to će im omogućiti da održe svoju konkurentsku prednost. Ukoliko ne budu mogli da evoluiraju, biće suočeni sa sve većim problemima.

Ovo će biti naročito vidljivo u oblasti propisa. Trenutni sistemi javne politike i donošenja odluka su evoluirali uz Drugu industrijsku revoluciju kada su donosioci odluka imali vremena da proučavaju specifična pitanja i razvijaju neophodne odgovore i odgovarajući regulativni okvir.

Takav pristup više nije izvodljiv.

S obzirom na to da Četvrta industrijska revolucija ima brz tempo promena, zakonodavci sve više dokazuju da su nesposobni da se sa njima izbore.

Kako bi onda oni mogli da održe interese potrošača i javnosti, a da istovremeno podržavaju inovacije i tehnološki razvoj?

To bi mogli da postignu prihvatanjem agilnog upravljanja, baš kao što privatni sektor sve više usvaja agilne odgovore o softverskom razvoju i poslovanju uopšte.

Ovo znači da se propisi moraju stalno prilagođavati novom, brzo promenljivom okruženju. Važno je da zaista razumeju šta je to što regulišu. Kako bi to uradili, vlade i regulatorne agencije bi trebalo da sarađuju blisko za kompanijama i građanskim društvima.

Četvrta industrijska revolucija će takođe duboko uticati na prirodu nacionalne i internacionalne bezbednosti, kao i na verovatnoću i prirodu sukoba. Istorija oružanih sukoba i internacionalne bezbednosti je istorija tehnološke inovacije, pa to ni danas nije izuzetak.

Kako se ovaj proces odvija, nove tehnologije kao što su autonomna ili biološka oružja, postaju lakša za korišćenje, pa će se individualci i male grupe sve više pridruživati državama kako bi nanosili masovnu štetu.

Ova nova ranjivost će voditi novim strahovima, ali će istovremeno napredak u tehnologiji stvarati potencijal da se reducira stepen uticaja nasilja kroz razvoj novih vidova zaštite (na primer, veće preciznosti u ciljanju u vojnoj industriji).

Uticaj na ljude

Četvrta industrijska revolucija će menjati ne samo ono što radimo nego i ono što smo. Uticaće na naš identitet i na:tehnologija

  • naš osećaj za privatnost,
  • naš pojam vlasništva,
  • naše obrasce potrošnje,
  • vreme koje posvetimo poslu,
  • naše slobodno vreme,
  • to kako razvijamo karijeru
  • to kako gajimo naše veštine,
  • to kako upoznajemo ljude,
  • to kako negujemo veze,
  • promenu našeg zdravlja.

Ova lista je beskrajna.

Tehnologije će uticati i na našu saradnju i empatiju. Naša veza sa smartfonima je poseban slučaj za posmatranje. To što smo stalno online i dostupni može nas lišiti životno najvažnijih stvari: vremena za pauzu, razmišljanje i učestvovanje u svrsishodnim razgovorima.

Jedan od najvećih individualnih izazova novog doba je privatnost. Praćenje i deljenje informacija o našim životima bitan je deo novog načina povezivanja sa ljudima.

Debate o problemima kao što su uticaj na naše unutrašnje živote i nedostatak kontrole naših podataka samo će se intenzivirati u godinama koje dolaze.

Revolucije koje se dešavaju u biotehnologiji i veštačkoj inteligenciji ponovo definišu šta to znači biti ljudsko biće menjanjem trenutnih granica životnog veka, zdravlja, razuma i sposobnosti. Revolucije nas primoravaju da ponovo definišemo etičke i moralne granice.

Oblikovanje budućnosti

Ni tehnologija niti poremećaji koji dolaze sa njom nisu spoljašnja snaga nad kojom ljudi ne mogu da imaju kontrolu. Svi mi smo odgovorni u odlukama koje svakodnevno donosimo kao građani, potrošači i investitori.

Na ovaj način bi trebalo da shvatimo priliku i moć koju imamo nad oblikovanjem Četvrte industrijske revolucije i da je usmerimo prema budućnosti koja odražava naše zajedničke ciljeve i vrednosti.

Kako bismo ovo uradili trebalo bi da razvijemo obimno i globalno deljeno gledište o tome kako tehnologija utiče na naše živote i preoblikuje našu ekonomiju, društvo, kulturu i okruženje. Moramo razmišljati strategijski o snagama poremećaja i inovacija koje će oblikovati našu budućnost.

Kada sve ovo uzmemo u obzir, na kraju se sve svodi na ljude i na vrednosti. Potrebno je da oblikujemo budućnost koja je dobra za sve nas tako što ćemo stavljati ljude na prvo mesto i osnaživati ih.

U njenoj najpesimističnijoj, nehumanoj formi, Četvrta industrijska revolucija bi mogla zaista imati potencijal da robotizuje čovečanstvo i da nam oduzme ono što je za čoveka suštinko. Ali suprotno gledano, kao dopuna najboljim delovima ljudske prirode (kreativnost, empatija), takođe može da podigne čovečanstvo na nov nivo kolektivne i moralne svesti zasnovane na zajedničkom smislu sudbine.

Obaveza svih nas je da se potrudimo da ovo poslednje prevlada.



In this tutorial we explain how you can install and set up a WordPress multisite to build a network of websites. We assume that you already installed a WordPress Single Site. Moreover we assume you have FTP access to the directory of your WordPress installation, as you need to change some files.

Table of Contents

1. Install WordPress Multisite – the Requirements

Before you start to install the WordPress multisite, please make sure that:

  • You already have a WordPress installation
  • Pretty Permalinks are activated. This means your URLs should not look like this, but rather like this
  • All plugins are deactivated
  • Important: you have a backup of your WordPress installation
  • You have FTP access to your WordPress installation

2. Allow Multisite in wp-config.php

The first step is to activate the Multisite feature in the file wp-config.php.

  1. Set up a FTP connection to your website.
  2. Open the file wp-config.php, which is is located in the main directory of your WordPress, and add the line
    define('WP_ALLOW_MULTISITE', true);
    above the line:
    /* That's all, stop editing! Happy blogging. */
    Define WP_ALLOW_MULTISITE in wp-config.php to enable the Multisite feature.
  3. Save the file wp-config.php.

Now you enabled the Multisite feature in your WordPress installation. But you haven’t finished yet. The next step is to install the network.

3. Install the WordPress Network

  1. Refresh the page in your browser and log in to your website.
  2. In the left sidebar under Tools you will find the menu tab Network Setup, where you can configure your WordPress Multisite.Install a WordPress Multisite – Settings page “Create a Network of WordPress Sites”
  3. Decide whether you want to use subdomains for the sites in your network (e.g. or whether you want to have them installed in subfolders (e.g.  This setting affects all the sites in your network, you cannot change that later on.  Do you need a site to be mapped to a top level domain (e.g. This is possible with domain mapping.
  4. Enter a name for your network in the field Network Title in the section Network Details.
  5. Enter the site admin’s e-mail address.
  6. Click the Install button.

4. Add some code to wp-config.php and .htaccess

WordPress will now provide you with two snippets of code, which you need to add to the wp-config.php and .htaccess files. Both files are located in the root directory of your WordPress.

  1. Set up a FTP connection to your website.
  2. Add the first code snippet to your wp-config.php directly above the line
    /* That's all, stop editing! Happy blogging. */
    The snippet looks like this, but adapted to your own site:
    define('MULTISITE', true);
    define('SUBDOMAIN_INSTALL', true);
    define('DOMAIN_CURRENT_SITE', 'My Website');
    define('PATH_CURRENT_SITE', '/');
    define('SITE_ID_CURRENT_SITE', 1);
    define('BLOG_ID_CURRENT_SITE', 1);
  3. Add the second code snippet to the .htaccess file and replace other WordPress rules.
    RewriteEngine On
    RewriteBase /
    RewriteRule ^index\.php$ - [L]

    # add a trailing slash to /wp-admin
    RewriteRule ^wp-admin$ wp-admin/ [R=301,L]

    RewriteCond %{REQUEST_FILENAME} -f [OR]
    RewriteCond %{REQUEST_FILENAME} -d
    RewriteRule ^ - [L]
    RewriteRule ^(wp-(content|admin|includes).*) $1 [L]
    RewriteRule ^(.*\.php)$ $1 [L]
    RewriteRule . index.php [L]
  4. Save both files.


5. Menu network administration and the network settings

When you changed the wp-config.php and the .htaccess, log into your WordPress admin area again. In the upper admin bar, you now see the new menu Network Admin. It’s displayed always, so you can always enter the admin area of the network, no matter on which site of your network you are. We take a look at the sub menues later on.

Below the network administration, all sites of the network are listed to which you were added. By clicking on the names, you enter the backends of these sites.

The menu Network Admin of a WordPress multisite
The menu Network Admin of WordPress multisite

And here’s the explanation of the menu tabs in the network administration:

  • Dashboard: Here you can find the widget to add new users and new sites to your network.
  • Sites: On this tab, you can see all sites of your network – similar to the posts and pages. By moving the cursor over the websites, you see for example links to edit, display the dashboard, view, delete, archive or deactivate the sites. Note that you have fewer functions for the main page of your network, as this one always needs to exist and you cannot delete it.
  • Users: Here you can administer the users of your network. In contrast to a single site installation, you can assign the super admin user role. The super admin has access to all sites and can make changes within the whole network. If you want a user to have access to the sites of your network, you need to add the user to each site via the user administration of the sites.
  • Themes: The theme administration. Here you can install and uninstall themes and activate or deactivate them for the whole network.
  • Plugins: Here you can find all installed plugins. You can add new plugins or delete them, you can activate or deactivate them for the whole network.
  • Settings: On this tab you can find and edit the basic settings for your site, for example: the network name and the admin E-Mail address, you can allow user registrations, add new users to the site admins, you can make the themes and plugins menu available for site admins or set the standard language of your sites.

6. Add a new website to the network

A WordPress multisite with only one website doesn’t really make sense. To a WordPress multisite, you can add as many websites as you want – always and any time, so, it needn’t be at the beginning. To enhance your website with a new site, take the following steps:

  1. Go to My Sites → Network Admin → Sites and click Add new.Add a new website to a multisite
  2. Enter the desired website address. In this case, we decided for a network with sub directories. The domain is already given, we just add the sub diretory.Settings for the new website in the multisite network
  3. Define a title of the website. This one is displayed at several positions in your network, for example in the backend as website name in My Sites, but maybe also in the frontend or in meta data like the page title.
  4. Choose a language for the new website.
  5. Choose the admin e-mail address which must be different than the one for the whole network. If there is no user with this e-mail yet, a new user with admin role for this site will be created.
  6. Click the button Add Site. Your new site is to be created and will be displayed in My Sites  → Network Admin → SitesHowever, in order to let others than the current admin administer this new site, you need to add them as user with admin role to this site.

7. Install Plugins and Themes in the WordPress multisite

Install or uninstall plugins or themes in a WordPress multisite network is something only the super admin can do. The site admins within the network can only activate or deactivate them. Well, and site admins can only activate and deactivate plugins in case the super admin checked the box Enable administration menus in the network administration in Settings → Network Settings.

Enable administration menus
Enable administration menus to allow admins to enable/disable plugins.

You can find the plugins administration for the whole network under Network Admin → Plugins, the themes administration under Network Admin → Themes.

Install plugins in a multisite
Install plugins in a multisite and make them available for the whole network

For the site admin, the whole thing looks like the next picture.

The plugins administration as site admin in a WordPress multisite
The plugins administration as site admin in a WordPress multisite

Hint: The admin can activate and deactivate plugins, but he cannot install or uninstall them.

For one of the plugins in our example you can read Network Only. This means the plugin is available only for all sites or for no site. Moreover, it’s the super admin only who can set the settings of this specific plugin, you need to make them in the network administration.

You can find further help to set up your multisite in our documentation category WordPress Multisite 1×1. In case you are setting up a multilingual website, take a look at: MultilingualPress getting started.

– And now about local –

A WordPress multisite can be the answer to managing multiple WordPress websites easily. Once you install WordPress multisite on your server, there’ll be no need to replicate administrative tasks on the backend of a number of individual sites. The sites can all be managed from a single dashboard.

Multisite dashboard

What is WordPress multisite exactly? A multisite is a network of two or more sites that operate off a single WordPress install. All the sites on a multisite setup will use the same WP database, WP directory and WP configuration file. In such a setup, the management of the WordPress install is in the hands of a “Network Administrator”. And the administration of the individual sites on the network is left to the care of the respective Site Admins.

How to Install WordPress Multisite on a Local Server

To begin with, make certain that you have administrator rights to access your computer’s file system. This is because you’ll need privileges to create directories and edit files.

We’ll presume that you’ve installed WordPress on your computer already. But just in case you need help with this, you can always look into our earlier guide.

Note. This is a required step. In order to follow through and install WordPress multisite on your local computer, you first need to have a standard WordPress installation running. Again, please check out our other guide – it’s a step-by-step tutorial, quite easy to follow.

To install WordPress multisite locally and create a network of any number of sites on your own computer, follow these steps:

Before you start:

Choice of URL: Now’s the time to decide whether to install additional sites in a sub-directory or under a sub-domain. It’s important to realize that you cannot change this later.

  • A sub-domain URL for the individual sites will read:
  • A sub-directory URL for the individual sites will read:

On a live server, you can install both under a sub-domain or a sub-directory. Installing a sub-domain on a local host is a little more technical. It involves configuring the XAMPP application to create a sub-domain and then registering it in the operating system software files. In this post, we’ll deal with only a sub-directory installation on the local server.

Enabling the Multisite Feature

1. Adding the multisite feature:

Firstly, open your wp-config.php file and find the line, ‘/* That’s all, stop editing! Happy blogging. */‘ towards the end. Just above this phrase, add this piece of code:

define('WP_ALLOW_MULTISITE', true);

Then save and close the file.

2. Setting up your network:

At this point, you should see a new item in your WordPress dashboard. Specifically, go to Tools > Network Setup. Once there, choose either sub-domains or sub directories.

If you’re going with a sub-domain network on a live server, you’ll need to obtain something called a wild card DNS from your hosting service provider. Since, we’re only doing a sub-directory install on a local server, you do not need any permissions. Fill in the details and then click on install.

Install WordPress Multisite

A few lines of code will be generated, and you need to add them in your wp-config.php file and in your .htaccess file.

After inserting the code, save the files. With this, WordPress Multisite is now successfully installed.

To access your Network Admin Dashboard, you’ll have to login afresh.

3. Adding sites to your network:

At this point, you can start creating sites and adding them to your network by clicking through My Sites > Network Admin > Sites > Add New:

Fill in the details for the individual sites, such as Address, Title and email. Then Click Add Site.

In the same manner, you can add as many sites as you want. You’ll see all the sites in your Network under All Sites.

4. Add themes and plugins:

With multisite in place, a Network Admin can install themes and plugins on multisite. These themes and plugins can be activated across the entire network, or selectively on a per-site basis.

When To Use / Install WordPress Multisite?

In general, multisite works well for a group of sites that fall into a hierarchical framework. Think government and its various departments, a university and its different schools, any national / world organization and its numerous chapters.

It’s also a good fit for a group of related sites that share common resources. For instance, a network of parallel or allied blogs.

To understand this better, check out Harvard Blogs, a free service for the benefit of the Harvard community. Anyone with an email at can create a blog on this WordPress install. Bloggers can simply concentrate on creating and managing content for their blogs, while enjoying the common resources offered by multisite – themes, widgets, multimedia material, spam protection and more.

In short, WordPress multisite helps you manage all your blogs from a single dashboard. You’ll need to install themes, plugins and updates just once and then activate them as required. Not only that, you’ll also save on time and server space. And, if you’re up to handling the technicalities, you can even monetize the network by offering to host other sites on your network.

When WordPress Multisite is Not The Solution?

Does all this mean that WordPress multisite is the best solution for anyone who runs multiple blogs? Of course not. While multisite offers great convenience, it does have some downside to it as well. Individual sites are restricted in their choice of themes, plugins and hosting service. Moreover, not all plugins are multisite compatible, and this can somewhat limit your choice of plugins.

Again, any downtime at the server end will cause the entire network to go down. And, if it happens that any one site on the network experiences a spurt in traffic, it may affect the speed of the other sites in the network.

It’s also important to note that detaching a site from the network or migrating the whole multisite setup sometime in the future may require professional help. And therefore, switching to a multisite arrangement should be done after much careful thought.

Install WordPress multisite: To Conclude

You can use a local multisite as a testing site for any changes to your WordPress install or to test compatibility of any new themes or plugins. You can also work on any project locally, before you push it up to a live server.