Full list of HTML elements

As a reminder, in most browsers you can right-click on a page and select View Source to see the HTML code used to render the page.

Basic HTML

<html>All content of your webpage must go inside <html></html> tags. 
<head>Contains information about the webpage.
The title tag goes inside <head></head> tags.
<title>Title of the webpage (what appears in the window/tab of your browser).
The text itself does not appear on webpage.
<body>Everything that appears on the webpage should go between these tags 
<p>Defines a paragraph (text with some space on the bottom and top).<p>This is a paragraph.</p>

This is a paragraph.

<h1>Heading tag, bold and bigger text.
You can use any number from <h1> to <h6> with <h1> being the largest heading and <h6> being the smallest.
<h3>larger heading</h3>
<h6>smaller heading</h6>

larger heading

smaller heading
<b>Apply bold formatting to text<b>bold</b>
<em>Apply emphasis to text<em>emphasis</em>

Inserts an image.

  • src is the link specifying the image to display (it is a required attribute)
  • width (and height) specifies the size of the image (it is an optional attribute)

Unlike most other tags, this start tag does not have a corresponding end tag.

<img src="" width="100px">

Links to another webpage.

  • href specifies the URL of the page to link to (it is a required attribute).

There must be some text between the start and end tags to be the anchor of the link.

<a href="">Duke University</a>
Duke University
<div>Defines a section of the web page.<div><p>This paragraph is inside a div.</p></div>


<li>List item.
List items can go inside unordered list, <ul>, or ordered list, <ol> tags.
<ul>Unordered list, each item has a bullet point.<ul>
  • HTML
  • CSS
<ol>Ordered list, each item has a number.<ol>
  1. HTML
  2. CSS


<table>Defines a table.
By default a table has no borders and is only as wide as the text it contains.
<tr>Defines a table row (only has value within <table> tag).
Table rows can contain either table data elements or table header cells.
<td>Table data element (standard table cell).
Can contain many types of data including text, images, links, lists, or even a table.
   cell 1
   cell 2
cell 1cell 2
<th>Table header cell (a table cell with bold text).<table>


Because the attributes used with input elements varies so much depending on the type of input you want to use, we have provided several specific examples of using different types of input.

<input type = "button"
       value = "change"
       onclick = "alert('clicked button')">
  • type is button
  • value is text that appears on button
  • onclick is event handler, specifies to call alert function when button is clicked
<input type = "color"
       value = "#001A57"
       id = "clr"
       onchange = "docolor()">
  • type is color picker
  • value is default color value
  • id lets us refer to input element in JavaScript
  • onchange is event handler, specifies to call docolor function when color is changed
<input type = "range"
       min = "10"
       max = "100"
       value = "10"
       id = "sldr"
       oninput = "dosquare()">
  • type is slider
  • min is minimum value, max is maximum value
  • value is default value
  • id lets us refer to input element in JavaScript
  • oninput is event handler, specifies to call dosquare function when slider is changed
<input type = "text"
       id = "finput">
  • type is text
  • id lets us refer to input element in JavaScript
<input type = "file"
       multiple = "false"
       accept = "image/*"
       id = "finput"
       onchange = "upload()">
  • type is file
  • multiple = "false" indicates user cannot select multiple files
  • accept = "image/*" indicates user can only select image files
  • value is default value
  • id lets us refer to input element in JavaScript
  • onchange is event handler, specifies to call upload function when input changes


Full list of CSS properties
Mozilla color picker tool

This website challenges people to use CSS to make as many different stylized versions as possible using the same HTML code.

Common CSS Properties and Values

PropertyExample ValuesUse withExample
text: paragraphs, links, list elements, table cells, headings
h1 {
    color: rgb(0,0,255);
p {
    font-size: 14pt;
td {
    text-align: center;
table, table cell, page backgrounds
body {
    background-color: #00FF00;
table cells
th {
    vertical-align: top;
img {
    float: right;
width100pxtables, table cells, images
img {
    width: 80px;
height100pxtables, table cells, images
td {
    height: 10px;
border-width5pxtables, table cells, images
table {
    border-width: 2px;
tables, table cells, images
table {
    border-style: solid;
tables, table cells, images
table {
    border-color: red;
10px dotted
5px dashed green
tables, table cells, images
table {
    border: 2px solid red;
table {
    border-collapse: collapse;

Course Specific JavaScript Functions


For these examples, assume

  • pix1 is a pixel at coordinate (100, 200) representing the color Duke blue, with RGBA values of (0, 26, 87, 255) 
  • pix2 is a pixel at coordinate (300, 400) representing the color white, with RGBA values of (255, 255, 255, 255) 
Function nameDescriptionExample
getX()returns the pixel’s x-coordinate within the imagepix1.getX() is 100
getY()returns the pixel’s y-coordinate within the imagepix1.getY() is 200
getRed()returns the value of the pixel’s red component (always in the range 0-255)pix1.getRed() is 0
getGreen()returns the value of the pixel’s green component (always in the range 0-255)pix1.getGreen() is 26
getBlue()returns the value of the pixel’s blue component (always in the range 0-255)pix1.getBlue() is 87
getAlpha()returns the value of the pixel’s alpha, or transparency, component (always in the range 0-255)pix1.getAlpha() is 255
setRed(newR)changes the value of the pixel’s red component to newR (if newR is not in the range of 0-255 it is changed to be in that range)pix1.setRed(255) changes the color to (255, 26, 87, 255) 
setGreen(newG)changes the value of the pixel’s green component to newG (if newG is not in the range of 0-255 it is changed to be in that range)pix1.setGreen(255) changes the color to (0, 255, 87, 255) 
setBlue(newB)changes the value of the pixel’s blue component to newB (if newB is not in the range of 0-255 it is changed to be in that range)pix1.setBlue(255) changes the color to (0, 26, 255, 255) 
setAlpha(newA)changes the value of the pixel’s alpha, or transparency, component to newA (if newA is not in the range of 0-255 it is changed to be in that range)pix1.setAlpha(100) changes the color to (0, 26, 87, 100) 
setAllFrom(otherPixel)changes the value of all of the pixel’s components (its red, green, blue, and alpha) to match otherPixel‘s valuespix2.setAllFrom(pix1) changes the color of pix2 to (0, 26, 87, 255) 


For these examples, assume the variable logo has the value of the image “devil.png” below. It is 100 pixels wide and 85 pixels tall.

Duke Blue Devil

Function nameDescriptionExample
new SimpleImage(filename)creates a SimpleImage to represent the image in filenamenew SimpleImage("devil.png") is
new SimpleImage(width, height)creates a SimpleImage whose dimensions are width by height. All the pixels in this image are black (0, 0, 0, 255)new SimpleImage(100, 100) is
new SimpleImage(fileInputElement)creates a SimpleImage to represent the image selected by the user using the fileInputElement given from the web pagevar input = document.getElementById("fileLoader");
var img = new SimpleImage(input);

assuming the user selected that image from their computer.
getWidth()returns the image’s width, or number of pixels in the X directionlogo.getWidth() is 100
getHeight()returns the image’s height, or number of pixels in the Y directionlogo.getHeight() is 85
getPixel(x,y)returns the pixel in this image at the coordinate (xy)logo.getPixel(0, 0) is the pixel (255, 255, 255, 255) 
setPixel(x,y,pixel)copies the RGBA values from the given pixel into pixel at the (x,y) coordinates givenlogo.setPixel(50, 42, pix2) changes the color to white 
setSize(width, height)resizes the image to be width by height. The image is scaled to fit into the new dimensions.logo.setSize(300, 85) is
values()returns all the pixels in the image, starting in the upper-left corner and moving down to the lower-right corner, providing a way to access each pixel in turn
for (var pixel of logo.values()) {
// modify pixel
drawTo(canvas)draws the image to canvas, for drawing images on web pagesvar canvas = document.getElementById("canvas");


Function nameDescriptionExample
print(something)displays something in the main “See It” area of the pageprint(image) shows the image
debug(something)displays something in the small area at the bottom of the “See It” area of the pagedebug(x) shows the value of the variable x

Standard JavaScript

Arithmetic Operations

+addition4 + 5 is 9
-subtraction9 - 5 is 4
*multiplication3 * 5 is 15
/division6 / 3 is 2
6 / 4 is 1.5
%mod/remainder5 % 3 is 2

Comparing Two Numbers

==is equal to3 == 3 is true
!=is not equal to3 != 3 is false
>=is greater than or equal to4 >= 3 is true
<=is less than or equal to4 <= 3 is false
>is strictly greater than4 > 3 is true
<is strictly less than3 < 3 is false

Combining Comparisons – Logic Operators

For these examples, assume the variable x has the value 5.

||returns true if at least one part of the comparison is true(x < 3 || x > 7) is false
(x < 3 || x < 7) is true
&&returns true only if both parts of the comparison are true(x > 3 && x < 7) is true
(x > 3 && x > 7) is false
!reverses the boolean value of a comparison(! x == 5) is false

Math Functions

Function nameDescriptionExample
abs(x)returns absolute value of xMath.abs(-3.6) is 3.6
Math.abs(3.2) is 3.2
ceil(x)returns x, rounded upwards to the nearest integerMath.ceil(3.6) is 4
Math.ceil(3.2) is 4
floor(x)returns x, rounded downwards to the nearest integerMath.floor(3.6) is 3
Math.floor(3.2) is 3
round(x)returns x, rounded x to the nearest integerMath.round(3.6) is 4
Math.round(3.2) is 3

Random Functions

Function nameDescriptionExample
random()returns a random number between 0 and 1Math.random() might return 0.523
Math.random() might return 0.983

Background Information

What is a Pixel?

Digital images are made of pixels. A pixel is a small point of colored light. When you look at a computer monitor, the image you see is actually made of a grid of these tiny dots of light. They are so small and so close together that it looks like one continuous picture. To get an idea of how small a pixel is, the monitor that I happen to be using as I write this has a resolution of 1440 x 900 (read as “1440 by 900”). That means that there are 1,440 pixels across the top and 900 pixels down one side, for a total of almost 1.3 million pixels.

This is what pixels might look like if they were magnified. This is an example of a 5×4 image because it is 5 pixels wide and 4 pixels tall.

Each pixel has a color value. We need a way to represent colors so that we can tell the computer which color to make each pixel. There are many color representations, but JavaScript uses a scheme called the RGBA color model. Basically, it means that a color is represented by four numbers:

  • R (the amount of red light)
  • G (the amount of green light)
  • B (the amount of blue light) and
  • A (called “alpha”, this number tells how transparent the color should be)

So each color is represented by these four numbers (“Everything’s a number”, remember?). Moreover, each of these number slots must have a value between 0 and 255. You may be wondering whether or not only 256 possibilities for each slot is enough to make all the many colors that we might want. If you have 256 possibilities for each of the R, G, and B values, (ignoring the transparency number for now) then the total number of colors available is over 16 million! It is estimated that the human eye can only detect 10 million different colors, so there’s no worry that you won’t be able to make any color you want.

Since the computer uses light to make a picture, the RGBA model is an additive color model. This means that the more the medium is added, the closer the color gets to white. Contrast this with using paint as a medium. That is a subtractive color model because the more paint you add, the further you get from white. So it should come as no surprise then that a color with R, G, and B values all 0 is black (no light) and a color with R, G, B values all 255 is white (pure light). Think of these numbers as knobs that you can turn up or down. If you turn on the red and blue lights and leave off the green light, you have shades of purple (R = 150, G = 0, B = 150, for example). The more you turn up the light, the higher the number goes and the brighter the color gets. How will you know what values to use for R, G, and B to make the color you want? If you search for “RGB color chart” on the Internet you will find lots of sites with palettes of colors and their corresponding values.

Transparency: Alpha Channel

The last value, called alpha, is also a number whose value must be between 0 and 255. This time the value of the number does not change the color’s hue, but rather the transparency of the color. If a pixel has an alpha value of 0, it is completely transparent, or invisible. If it has a value of 255, it is completely opaque. Using this transparency value allows you to have layers of color on the screen, or shapes that can be partially seen through other shapes.

Image Coordinate System

Finally, it is important to be able to distinguish one pixel from another. We do this by referring to each pixel’s location on the screen or image. Each pixel gets an X and Y value, where (0,0) is the top left corner of the screen. (This can take some getting used to as it’s not the way a Cartesian Plane is drawn in math class!)

The X value refers to how far right the pixel is, and the Y value refers to how far down the pixel is. For my computer monitor, which is 1440 x 900, the top left corner is (0,0), the top right is (1439,0), the bottom left is (0,899), the bottom right is (1439,899), and the middle is (720, 450).




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